What Is TOP Network: A Brief Overview
This document will be continuously updated
TOP Network’s architecture consists of two main components: an open decentralized communications network, and a high-performance public blockchain.
TOP Network’s public blockchain, dubbed TOP Chain, is able to support tens of thousands of TPS with near instant finality, while remaining decentralized and permissionless.
The main driver of scalability is a comprehensive sharding design. TOP Chain, which takes the form of a block-lattice DAG data structure, is sharded in terms of transaction processing, state, and network transmission. Each shard uses a high-speed concurrent pBFT-PoS consensus algorithm to process transactions in parallel. Cross-shard communication and synchronization are made efficient using a hierarchical network architecture with optimized p2p networking protocols. The general architecture of TOP Chain and flow of the consensus network is as follows:
There are three types of nodes:
- Edge Nodes: Relay transactions from the client to the internal network. Edge Nodes do not participate in transaction validation, or store any data. The Edge Network helps keep the Validator Nodes and Advanced Nodes safe from DDoS attacks.
- Validator Nodes: After being sorted into shards, these nodes validate/confirm transactions and produce shard blocks using an optimized pBFT algorithm. Validator nodes are lightweight, and do not need to store the full state. A VRF mechanism is used to sort validator nodes into shards. Furthermore, nodes are periodically shuffled to protect against adaptive adversaries.
- Advanced Nodes: Advanced Nodes are sorted into groups called clusters, after which they manage a set of shards, act as nodes for the beacon chain, perform secondary audits on transactions confirmed by Validator Nodes, store the full state, and facilitate cross-shard communication and synchronization.
TOP Chain is a PoS network. Each type of node has different stake requirements. Edge Nodes and Validator Nodes need only make a certain minimum deposit. These nodes do not require hardware intensive setups. On the other hand, Advanced Nodes need to be a bit more powerful, and require votes from tokens holders in addition to a minimum deposit to become eligible. Unlike DPoS voting systems, the number of active Advanced Nodes is not capped. As long the minimum voting threshold is passed, the node can participate, making TOP Chain a permisionless network.
Other components of TOP Network include: service-chains, off-chain trusted processors, and a distributed storage network. Together, these key technologies and scaling techniques allow TOP Chain to horizontally scale-out to meet the needs of real-world businesses, while staying true to the ethos of decentralization.
Additionally, through carefully crafted token economics, TOP Chain is able to support zero fees for most transactions. TOP Chain uses a “rent” scheme, which requires developers to lock tokens in exchange for certain resources, like on-chain storage, RAM, and bandwidth.
-Zero Fee Transactions
-Issue TTS-1 (TOP Token Standard) native tokens or TRC20 contract tokens.
TOP Chain also supports smart-contracts. Currently, the Lua language is supported, although more will be added in the future.
TOP Decentralized Communications Network
In addition to a high-performance public blockchain, TOP Network provides an open, decentralized communications network. This autonomous running network provides affordable communication functions as a service, including messaging, VPN, VoIP, video chat, CDN, streaming, IoT data sharing, and distributed storage. These services are easily accessible using the TOP SDK/API. As of now, only the VPN service network is available for use.